03 February 2015

Interesting Stuff I

  • Abduction is movement away from the center, as spreading the toes or fingers apart.
  • Adduction is movement toward the midline of the body, as bringing the fingers and toes together. (Adduction and abduction always refer to movements of the appendicular skeleton).
  • Angular motion is comprised of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. Each is based on reference to a certain anatomical position.
  • Circumduction is a special type of angular motion, described as making circular movements as moving the arm in a loop.
  • Dorsiflexion / Plantar flexion refers to movements of the foot. Dorsiflexion is the movement of the ankle while elevating the sole, as if digging in the heel. Plantar flexion is the opposite movement, extending the ankle and elevating the heel, as ifstanding on tiptoes.
  • Elevation / Depression occurs when a structure moves in a superior or inferior direction, as the mandible is depressed when the mouth is opened and elevated when the mouth is closed.
  • Extension occurs in the same plane as flexion, except that it increases the angle between articulating elements. Extension reverses the movement of flexion. Hyperextension is a continuation of movement past the anatomical position, which can cause injury.
  • Flexion is movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces the angle between the articulating elements as in bringing the head toward the chest; that is, flexing the intervertebral joints of the neck.
  • Gliding occurs when two opposing surfaces slide past each other as between articulating carpals and tarsals and between the clavicles and sternum.
  • Opposition is a special movement of the thumb which enables it to grasp and hold an object.
  • Pronation / Supination refers to the rotation of the distal end of the radius across the anterior surface of the ulna. This rotation moves the wrist and hand from palm-facing-front (supination) to palm-facing-back (pronation).
  • Protraction entails moving a part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal plane, as in jutting the face forward to gain distance at a finish line.
  • Retraction is the reverse movement of protraction as in pulling the jaw back towards the spine.
  • Rotation involves turning the body or a limb around the longitudinal axis, as rotating the arm to screw in a lightbulb.

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